Leaders Creating Leaders for Tomorrow

The Practice-Ready Graduate

Pharmacy Practice in the Next Decade and Beyond

Pharmacy Students Provide Direct Patient Care

Although the profession will maintain responsibility for the safe and effective distribution of medications, this will no longer be the primary focus of pharmacy practice in the future. Increased emphasis will be placed on optimizing patient outcomes and decreasing overall health care expenditures. Pharmacists will function within interprofessional teams as the evidence based “pharmacotherapy specialists” handling complex medication related issues throughout all aspects of care. They will assess, treat and/or triage patients with acute illnesses within their scope of clinical competence and privileges, and provide medication therapy management for chronic disease.

Pharmacists will function with the autonomy to prescribe or adjust medications in collaboration with physicians. Pharmacists will engage in preventative health and wellness activities and provide appropriate patient specific interventions. Pharmacists will serve as a vital resource to educate other health care providers as well as patients. Due to continual change in the healthcare environment, pharmacists will need to develop adaptive practices and systems in order to advance patient care.

The practice ready HCOP graduate should be able to…

  1. Provide direct patient care
    • Identify patients who would benefit from pharmacotherapy intervention
    • Collect data through patient interviews and chart review
    • Perform physical assessments necessary for the evaluation of common conditions, drug- related problems, and monitoring response to drug therapy
    • Utilize point of care testing
    • Perform a comprehensive medication review
    • Prioritize patient drug-related problems
    • Assess and develop an appropriate plan for managing drug-related problems
    • Develop and implement evidence based pharmacotherapy plans considering patient specific factors
    • Assess and promote medication adherence while identifying and resolving patient specific barriers to medication adherence
    • Diagnose and treat acute self-limited illnesses and determine appropriate referrals
    • Recommend self-care, OTC and alternative medications when appropriate
    • Collaboratively prescribe and adjust medication therapy
    • Develop and communicate a treatment plan that considers patient specific cultural and social issues
    • Document patient interventions using appropriate medical language
    • Monitor outcomes of care
  2. Provide evidence-based pharmacotherapy services
    • Assume responsibility for and provide evidence-based pharmacotherapy as a member of the healthcare team
    • Access and utilize appropriate drug information resources
    • Identify and analyze appropriate medical literature
    • Develop and maintain a plan as a self-directed learner for staying current with medical literature
  3. Serve as a health educator
    • Identify stakeholders who would benefit from pharmacist-delivered education
    • Assess the educational needs and barriers to learning of stakeholders
    • Provide appropriate education to stakeholders to include an assessment of their understanding
    • Provide effective patient centered counseling/education taking into consideration health literacy, motivation, and readiness for change
  4. Optimize clinical, economic, and humanistic outcomes
    • Serve as an advocate for patients
    • Assist patients with access to health care and services
    • Identify, interpret and analyze literature in order to ensure the practice of evidenced based medicine
    • Perform medication reconciliation at all points of care
    • Facilitate transitions of care throughout the healthcare system
    • Manage and utilize a formulary
    • Select appropriate technology to enhance patient care
  5. Function within an interprofessional team
    • Work with individuals of other professions to plan and deliver patient-/population-centered care, while maintaining a climate of mutual respect and shared values
    • Assess and address the healthcare needs of the patients and populations served with awareness of one’s own role and those of other professions
    • Communicate, both in writing and verbally, with patients, families, communities, and other health professionals in a responsive and responsible manner that supports a team approach to the maintenance of health and the treatment of disease
  6. Distribute medications safely and effectively
    • Evaluate medication orders by correlating the order with patient-specific data and drug information
    • Provide safe, accurate and efficient distribution of medications
    • Compound sterile and non-sterile drug products according to guidelines set forth by USP 797 and other regulations
    • Recognize, report and resolve medication errors and adverse drug reactions
    • Assess and resolve medication safety related issues
    • Utilize pharmaceutical product management systems (eg PBMs, hospital systems) associated with distribution services
    • Perform functions necessary for emergency management and assist with emergency stockpiles
    • Identify the need for and implement quality/performance improvement strategies
  7. Manage Pharmacy Practice
    • Apply basic management principles to all aspects of pharmacy operations including human resources, operations, information technology, inventory, finance and accounting, and marketing
    • Negotiate appropriate payment structure and determine consequences of contracts with payers
    • Develop and lead the implementation of new practices
    • Develop collaborative drug therapy management agreements (CDTM)
    • Plan, implement and assess a program to improve patient safety, patient outcomes, and attain financial goals
    • Participate in accreditation processes
    • Practice within state and federal laws, rules and regulations
  8. Provide preventative health and wellness services
    • Utilize existing data to prioritize public health needs
    • Provide education to patients regarding health and wellness
    • Conduct health screenings and provide recommendations and referrals
    • Recommend and administer immunizations
  9. Change Healthcare Environment/Advocacy
    • Remain active and engaged in professional organizations
    • Recognize the need and advocate for change in the U.S. health care system in order to improve patient outcomes and decrease costs
    • Facilitate the development of innovative practice models that provide opportunities for pharmacists to develop clinical and leadership skills
    • Advocate formalized leadership training programs to advance the profession of pharmacy
  10. Personal and Professional Development
    • Demonstrate ethical and professional behaviors and values
    • Create and assume responsibility for the accomplishment of personal and professional goals
    • Examine and reflect on personal factors and experiences that could enhance or limit personal and professional growth
    • Develop and implement an individualized plan for continuous personal and professional development

Last Updated: July 14, 2022